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 Infection Control Guidelines

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Join date : 2009-02-28
Age : 47
Location : Makkah,Saudi Arabia

PostSubject: Infection Control Guidelines   Sat Feb 28, 2009 8:55 am

Basic Infection Control
Isolation Precautions
Hand Hygiene
Medical Waste

Isolation Precautions
Standard Precautions
Transmission Based Precautions:
A. Contact Precautions
B. Airborne Precautions
C. Droplet Precautions

Standard Precautions:
1. Applies to all patients regardless of diagnosis.
2. Blood, body fluids, secretion and excretion except sweat.
3. Mucous membrane, non-intact skin.

Precautions in details:
1. Handwashing
2. Gloves
3. Mask
4. Respiratory Etiquette
5. Eye goggles 5 Gowns
6. Linen Management

Transmission Based Precautions:
A. Airborne Transmission: Prevent airborne transmission via droplet nuclei
<5 micron that remain suspended via air.
Disease: Tuberculosis, Measles, Chicken Pox, SARS.
Precautions
1. Patient should be negative pressure room
2. N95 Mask
3. Negative pressure room. 4. Keep the door closed
B. Droplet Transmission: For infectious agents with droplet nuclei >5 microns generated by coughing sneezing
Ø Diseases: Pertussis, Meningococcal Meningitis, Mumps,Rubella ,Mycoplasma Pneumonia, Influenza
Ø Precautions:
Private Room, Surgical Mask, Keep the door closed.
C. Contact Transmission: For protection against skin-to-skin and physical transfer of microorganism to a host from a source
Ø Example: MRSA, Scabies, Hepatitis A, Multi drug resistant
Ø Precautions:
Hand washing, Gloves changes, Gown, Morning care washing with an antiseptic daily.


HAND HYGIENE AND ALCOHOL HAND RUBS

Purpose:
Washing your hands is the most important measure to prevent the transmission of infection.

Policy:
Hospital personnel shall wash their hands to prevent the spread of infections:
For 3 minutes at the beginning of work and before leave the hospital. Then 15 seconds between each procedure done:
Before applying and after removing the gloves.
Between handling of individual patients.
After sneezing, coughing, blowing or wiping the nose and mouth.
Touching blood pressure or pulse, patient's hands, gown and bed sheet.
After handling used sputum containers, soiled urinals, catheters and bedpans.

Instructions:
Wet hands and forearms thoroughly, apply soap or chlorohexedine 4%.
Rub palm to palm.
Right palm over left dorsum and left palm over right dorsum.
Palm to palm fingers interfaced.
Back of fingers to opposing palm with fingers interlocked.
Rotational rubbing of right thumb clasped in left palm and vice versa.
Rotational rubbing, backwards and forwards with clasped fingers of right hand and left palm and vice versa.
Rinse and dry hands and forearms with paper towel thoroughly including under ring area.

Use of Alcohol Based Hand rubs:
Indications:
If hands are not visibly soiled or contaminated with blood or body fluids used alcohol-based hand rub. (If hands are visibly soiled or contaminated with organic matter, used soap and water procedure).
Apply 1.5-3 ml of an alcohol gel to the palm of one hand and rub hands together.
Cover all surfaces of your hands and fingers, including areas around/ under finger nails.
Continue rubbing hands together until alcohol dries.
If you applied a sufficient amount of alcohol hand rub, it should take at 10-15 seconds of rubbing before your hands feel dry.

SHARP AND MEDICAL WASTE MANAGEMENT
1. SHARP MEDICAL WASTE
1. Broken glasses, IV needles, glass specimens needles, specimen tubes-used/unused, Pasteur pipette, intravenous catheters, Lancets, scalpels, used Syringes and Needles, Glass medication vials, slides and cover glasses.
DO NOT:
ü DO NOT Recap used needles.
ü DO NOT remove needles from syringes by hand.
ü DO NOT Manipulate them using both hands and any technique that involves directing the point of a needle toward any part of the body.
ü DO NOT Remove used needles from disposable syringes by hand.
ü DO NOT Bend, or break otherwise needles.
ü DO NOT pass needles by hand to others.
ü DO NOT pick needles with your hand, used disposable gloves and immediately to put it in the sharp container.
NEVER:
NEVER disposed sharps into regular trash.
NEVER disposed sharps into bags of medical waste.
NEVER relax until you have disposed of used sharps in the sharp container.
NEVER carry out another task with a used sharp in your other hand.
NEVER lay used sharps down on bed lockers, windows sills or work surfaces.
NEVER leave used sharps lying amongst swabs, or dressing towels on a trolley. Place straight in a sharp box.

2. INFECTIOUS MEDICAL WASTE
1. Any disposable materials contaminated with blood and body fluids.Diapers/under pads, all bloody IV sets, urinary catheters and bags, used drainage bags, drains and tubing's, gloves and mask.
All waste from isolation rooms, all soiled dressings Heamodialysis tubing.
3. Disposable suction catheters and endotracheal tubes.

3. PATHOLOGICAL WASTE
1. Human body parts
2. Placenta
Should be kept in refrigeration until handled to Islamic Fatwa No. 8099 dated 21 Safer 1405 H.

4. NON-INFECTED WASTE:
1. Any disposable materials which are not contaminated with blood and body fluids. Packaging, food packaging, boxes, newspapers, tissues and paper towels.Plates, cups, utensils-disposable, empty pen, papers, and kitchen products.
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